Donald Crammond, PhD, joined the Center for Clinical Neurophysiology as a staff neurophysiologist in November 1997. Dr. Crammond received his undergraduate education in physiology at the University of Glasgow in Scotland and his graduate education in neurophysiology at the University of Toronto. After postdoctoral studies at the University of Wisconsin and later at the Université de Montréal, he was appointed visiting associate scientist at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Md.
Dr. Crammond specializes in intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) and in systems-level, behavioral neurophysiology, examining the neuronal substrates of higher cognitive processes such as movement planning and speech and the functional interactions between, the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia, and the mechanisms underlying motor control and movement disorders.
Dr. Crammond is the associate director for microelectrode recording and subcortical mapping for the Movement Disorder Surgery Program at UPMC. Dr. Crammond is the chairman of the American Board of Neurophysiologic Monitoring (ABNM).
Specialized Areas of Interest
American Board of Neurophysiological Monitoring
Professional Organization Membership
Education & Training
- BSc (Hons), Physiology, University of Glasgow, 1980
- PhD, Neurophysiology, University of Toronto, 1988
- Fellowship, Neurophysiology, University of Wisconsin, 1987
- Fellowship, Neurophysiology, Université de Montreal, 1992
- Fellowship, Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Pittsburgh, 1999
Lipski WJ, DeStefino VJ Stanslaski SR, Antony AR, Crammond DJ, Cameron JL, Richardson RM. Sensing-enabled hippocampal deep brain stimulation in idiopathic nonhuman primate epilepsy. J Neurophysiol 113(2):1051-1062, 2015.
Thirumala PD, Krishnaiah B, Habeych ME, Balzer JR, Crammond DJ. Hearing outcomes after loss of brainstem auditory evoked potentials during microvascular decompression. J Clin Neurosci 22(4):659-663, 2015.
Tormenti MJ, Tomycz ND, Coffman KA, Kondziolka D, Crammond Dj, Tyler-Kabara EC. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for dopa-responsive dystonia in a 6-year-old child. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7(6):650-653, 2011.
Vinjamuri R, Crammond DJ, Kondziolka D, Lee HN, Mao ZH. Extraction of sources of tremor in hand movements of patients with movement disorders. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 13(1):49-56, 2009.
Smith PN, Balzer JR, Khan MH, Davis RA, Crammond D, Welch WC Gerszten P, Sclabassi RJ, Kang JD, Donaldson WF. Intraoperative somato-sensory evoked potential monitoring during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in nonmyelopathic patients--a review of 1,039 cases. Spine J 7(1):83-87, 2007.
Crammond DJ, Kalaska JF. Modulation of preparatory neuronal activity in dorsal premotor cortex due to stimulus-response compatibility. J Neurophysiol 71:1281-1284, 1994.
Kalaska JF, Crammond D. J. Cerebral cortical mechanisms of reaching movements. Science 255:1517-1523, 1992.
Crammond DJ, Kalaska JF. Neuronal activity in primate parietal cortex area 5 varies with intended movement direction during an instructed-delay period. Exp Brain Res 76:458-462, 1989.
MacKay WA, Crammond DJ. Neuronal correlates in posterior parietal lobe of the expectation of events. Behav Brain Res 24:167-179, 1987.
Crammond DJ, MacKay WA, Murphy JT. Evoked potentials from passive elbow movements. I. Quantitative spatial and temporal analysis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 61:396-410, 1985.
A complete list of Dr. Crammond's publications can be reviewed through the National Library of Medicine's publication database.
Dr. Crammond’s major clinical research interest is the study of basal ganglia and cerebral cortical interactions related to the control of movement in movement disorders including Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and essential tremor. This is accomplished by recording neurophysiological data from micro-electrode single-unit (MER) and local field potential (LFP) recordings in the basal ganglia simultaneously with Electrocorticography (ECoG) and LFP from sensorimotor cortex, to examine the physiological relationship between basal ganglia and cortical structures. This research examines how these cortical and subcortical neural structures are involved in different aspects of movement planning and movement execution by having human subjects perform various controlled behavioral tasks. Currently, a speech task is being utilized to study the novel aspects of speech and language representations in the human basal ganglia. As we understand more about basal ganglia physiology and cortical-basal ganglia interactions, we hope this will also help us to improve the targeting for optimal DBS placement within the basal ganglia to treat movement disorder patients and to eventually decrease the incidence of post-operative speech deficits. Dr. Crammond is a co-investigator for a NINDS / UO1 funded research project investigating the role of the basal ganglia as well as basal ganglia and sensorimotor cortex interactions in various aspects of language coding and speech production.
Dr. Crammond is also a co-investigator in a USAMRAA/AFIRM II funded translational research project investigating the rate of peripheral nerve regeneration in a non-human primate model of long median nerve gaps. These studies apply electrophysiological techniques of using nerve conduction studies using compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and trans-cranial motor evoked potentials (Tc-MEPs) to assess the differential effect of various nerve growth factors on sensory versus motor nerves axonal regeneration.
Dr. Crammond’s ongoing clinical research interest is to review clinical outcome data to determine the impact of various modalities of intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) to prevent and/or reduce iatrogenic injury and to use neurophysiological mapping of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex to map motor and language functions in various neurosurgical procedures in awake patients, for example, to map and locate eloquent cortical areas in tumor resection and in epilepsy surgeries.
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